UPVC Pipes Application for Agriculture

UPVC Pipes Application for Blue Casing
UPVC Pipes Application for Agriculture

UPVC Pipes Application for Agriculture

Water, is indispensable for agriculture. However, only 15% of agricultural land, the world over, gets dependable water supply. In India too, only a fraction of cultivated land gets a dependable supply of water.

Various irrigation methods are employed by farmers to ensure proper water-supply. Canal irrigation is one such method. However, canals occupy cultivable space and thus hamper production.

Moreover, nearly 40% of canal water is wasted due to evaporation and percolation. Besides, in certain areas, canal irrigation over a period of time has led to salination.

Pipes are an effective way of overcoming the problem caused by canal irrigation as they can be laid under ground and moreover, water loss due to percolation and evaporation is eliminated. Lift irrigation is employed to draw water from a lower to a higher level. Here, various kinds of pipes are used.

GETECH RIGID PVC PIPES with their good quality, trouble free service, durability and economical use are a better choice than mild steel, galvanized steel, cast iron, and plastic pipes.

Rigid PVC Pipes at a Glance

  • Colour - Light grey
  • Length - 6 mtrs
  • Pressure rating - 2.5 kg, 4kg, 6kg, 8kg, 10lg/cm2. and 15kg/cm2
  • Manufactured with ISI mark - IS4985 : 2000
  • Range available - 20 mm to 400 mm OD

Benefits of Rigid PVC Pipes

Economy: Being cheaper than conventional cement and steel pipes, Rigid PVC PIPES are very economical.

Light Weight: PVC pipes are 1/6th the weight of steel pipes. This makes them easy to carry and install, doing away with heavy material handling equipment. This reduces labour cost as well, as the process of installation is faster.

Rugged and Durable: Manufactured out of the best PVC material, Rigid PVC PIPES do not get rusted and are not affected by most chemicals. Hence, they last longer, Render, trouble - free service and require less maintenance.

More Flow: Frictional losses in RIGID PVC PIPES are 40% lower than conventional pipes. Hence there is approximately 25% more flow than from pipes of the same size conventional pipes and pipes of other companies.

Steps in Designing and Irrigation System

survey

A contour survey is undertaken to know the topography of the area of land to be irrigated. Based on this survey, the delivery chamber could be conveniently located at the highest point and the rest of the land could be irrigated by canals.

Next, the route of the pipe line from the source of water to the delivery chamber should be finalized. While finalizing the pipe route, due consideration should be given to the strata of earth, so that excavation cost can be kept at the minimum and the most economical length be decided. A longitudinal section is plotted after finalizing this data. This L section denotes the length and static head of the pipe line. (ref. sketch).

Cropping Pattern

While the survey is in progress, the cropping pattern should be decided. Availability of water, (whether perennial or for eight months only) and types of crops in Rabi and Kharif seasons, are the factors to be taken into consideration. Adequate thought given to these factors will ensure better utilization of the pump-set and pipe line and also eliminating the danger of drying up of crops.

Example

Let us consider the following cropping pattern:

Rabi season Wheat 2.0 hectares
Summer season Cotton 105 hectares
Vegetable 0.5 hectares
Kharif Season Cotton 1.0 hectares

Rate of Flow (Discharge Capacity)

Discharge capacity is measured in cubic meters/ sec (m3/sec) or cubic feet/sec(ft3/sec). It is necessary to know the following:

i) Area = 'A' in Hectares
ii) Depth of water of irrigation - 'Y' cms
iii) Duration between two waterings - 'R' days
iv) Time for operation of pump - 'T' hours.

Once all the above are known one should establish the discharge required in each season. The pump set and pipe should be able to handle the maximum discharge of all seasons.

Season Crop Area
A
Depth of Water
Y
Duration
R
Time
T
Rabi Wheat 2.0 7.5 21 10
Kharif Cotton 1.0 7.5 21 10
Summer Vegetable 0.5 7.5 10 10
Cotton 1.5 7.5 21 10  

 

Discharge in Rabi

=27.78 AxY/RxY =27.78 2.0x7.5/21x10 = 2.00Ltr/Sec

Discharge in Kharif

=27.78 AxY/RxT =27.78 1x7.5/21x10 =1 Ltr/Sec

Discharge in Summer

=27.78 AxY/RxT =27.78 0.5x7.5/10x10+1.5x7.5/21x10

=2.53 Ltr/Sec

From the above example, it is clear that the maximum discharge required is in summer and the pump set to be selected should have discharge capacity of 2.5 ltr/sec at adequate hed.

Pressure Rating of Pipe

Depending on the height to which water is to be lifted, the class or pressure rating pipe is decided. Static head, frictional and other losses should be taken into consideration.

Pressure rating of pipes
Kg/cm2
Height to which it can be used safely
2.5 25 mtrs(80')
4 40 mtrs(130')
6 60 mtrs(195')
10 100 mtrs(325')


Total Head

In order to calculate this, frictional losses in pipe, fittings and valves are to be added on to static head. Frictional losses in pipe of a particular diameter could be found out from charts enclosed.

Frictional losses in fittings are computed as under:

  • Fittings are converted in equivalent length of pipe
  • Add this equivalent length to length of pipe line
  • Compute the frictional losses with the help of chart for this length

For frictional losses in bends and valves, graphs are to be referred

EXAMPLE

Discharge (Q) =2.55 l.p.s

Head Static =25 mtrs.

Length of pipe line -500 mtrs.

Selecting 63 mm x 4kg. pipe, the frictional losses are 18.75 mtrs/km fro 2.5 l.p.s. flow (from chart) therefore the frictional losses.

18.75x500/1000 = 9.5 mtrs.

TOTAL HEAD

Static head + frictional head + unexpected other losses @ 5%

=(25 mtrs + 9.5mtrs) +5%

=36.22 mtrs.

Therefore it is safe to use 63 mm 4 kg. Pipes.

HORSE POWER CALCULATION

Formula H.P = QxH/75xE

Where Q = discharge (ltr. Per second)

H = total Head (mtrs)

E = Efficiency

EXAMPLE

Calculate H.P. for 2.55 l.p.s. discharge to be lifted to a total height of 40 mtrs., with centrifugal pump set.

Substituting the values.

H.P. = 2.55x40/75x0.7 = 2.08

Efficiencies of various pumps

Vertical turbine pump = 0.8

Direct coupled centrifugal pump = 0.7

Belt driven Centrifugal pump = 0.6

Storage of Rigid PVC Pipes

Ensure the following while storing the Rigid PVC PIPES

  • The surface should be flat and even
  • The pipes should be stored in shade; or should be covered with grass or tarpaulin
  • While stacking, the height of the stack should not exceed 1.5 mtrs
  • While storing, the solvent cement, should be stored away from sunlight, in a cool place
Transportation of Rigid PVC pipes
  • Ensure that the pipes are loaded in a truck, having body of adequate length. Pipes should not bend over hand over a metre
  • Body of truck should be free from sharp objects which may damage the pipes
  • Pipes should be handled with care and should not be thrown while loading or unloading - as they may crack and get damaged
Lift Irrigation

The pipes are very useful for lift irrigation, where water in the lower level are pumped to the higher level, where from the precious waters are brought to the needed point by means of pipes, without any loss of water, at any stage.

Erection of Rigid PVC Pipes

Trenching- Trench should be of adequate width and depth. Depth should be such that it provides clean cushion of 75 to 100cms. Width should be equal to dia = 30 mm.

After excavation , the trenches should be inspected and sharp objects like stones, tins or nails should be removed. If the bottom is rocky, it should be covered with soft soil or sand to a depth of 10o cms. Even otherwise, the trench bed should be soft and flat.

The pipes with one end duly fitted with the socket should then be laid in the trench, then the pipes should be jointed by solvent cement jointing process. Anchor blocks are to be incorporated whenever the pipe line changes direction, so that pipe line sustains water hammer.
Flanged joints
Flanged joints are required while connecting large diameter pipes with metal pipes or with flanged valves or fittings. A gasket is used between the two flanges. Tail pieces for flange connections are available. However, it is possible to flare the ends of Rigid PVC PIPES and use it as a tail piece. Tail piece is then jointed on pipe with solvent cement and flanges tighten and with nut bolts
Valves
Valves are essential for the safe functioning of the pipe line and pump sets. These include air valves, non-return valves, pressure relief valves, sluice valves, etc. Non-return valve is fitted immediately after the pump. This ensures safety from water returning with high velocity due to unforeseen stoppage of power failure. Sluice valve is then fitted to control the flow of water. Air valve allows trapped air to escape from the pipe line and ensures steady flow of water. At all the high points in the pipe line air valves should be incorporated particularly when the line has ups and downs
  Testing of Rigid PVC Pipe Line

The testing should be undertaken in stages of about 1000 mtrs. To 1500 mtrs. However any convenient length could be selected. Benefits of selecting a shorter length is that the faults, if any, could be detected easily. The tested pipe line could be then conveniently buried if found okay. Steps in testing are as under.

  • Inspect the pipe line initially and ensure that all fittings and valves are connected properly
  • Partially cover the line, leaving all joints open. This will reduce the movement of pipe line after starting the pump,
    Start the pump and release water to pipe line gradually so that chances of water hammer are eliminated
  • Keep all air vents open so that trapped air, if any, can escape.
Technical Data
Conversion Table - Pressure
Atmosphere Bar Centimeters Of Mercury Feet head Of water (ft/water) Inches head of mercury (in Hg) Kilograms Per sq.in Kgf/cm2 Pounds Per sq .cm. (lbf/in2) Metres head of Water (m/hd water)
1.0 1.0133 76.000 33.899 29.921 1.0332 14.696 10.332
0.98692 1.0 75.006 33.455 29.530 1.0197 14.504 10.197
0.013158 0.013332 1.0 0.44603 0.39370 0.013595 0.19337 0.13595
0.029500 0.029891 2.2420 1.0 0.88267 0.030480 0.43353 0.30480
0.033421 0.033864 2.5400 1.1329 1.0 0.034532 0.49116 0.34532
0.96784 0.98067 73.556 32.808 28.959 1.0 14.223 10.000
0.068046 0.068948 5.1715 2.3067 2.0360 0.070307 1.0 0.70307
0.096784 0.98067 7.3556 3.2808 2.8959 0.1000 1.4223 1.0

 

uPVC Electrical Conduits

For the past about three decades, Sujala Pipes (P) Ltd., Nandyal has been manufacturing uPVC Electrical Conduits under the brand names Nandi, Nandi Premium, Nandi Deluxe, Nandi Gold, Nandi Platinum and Nandi Diamond using latest technologies to geep pace with the modern technology and the choice of the customers. The company believes in total Quality control measures and as a part of it each pipe is thoroughly checked at the manufacturing stage, so as to ensure that the customer is supplied with good quality product. The company's Electrical Conduits are of ISI Standards and used for domestic & industrial purposes, the pipe size ranging from 16mm to 63mm to outer diameter.

Features and Advantage
  • Fire Resistance: Due to self extinguishing in nature, these Electrical Conduits do not support combustion and remove the source of lgnition
  • Non- conductivity : uPVC Electrical Conduits prevent electrical shocks and short circuits due to its non-conductivity of electricity
  • Easy installation: The Conduit are light in weight and are simple & easy to install.
  • Easy Wiring : These conduit have high mechanical strength in that it is assisted by smooth interior wall that reduces friction thus helping in easy wiring. These pipes can be used for installation both in open and concealed way.
  • Non-corrosion and good visual appearance
  • These conduits have built in strength ensuring long life.
Testing as per IS : 9537(Part 3) - 1983
Type Tests Acceptance Test
  • Checking of Dimensions
  • Bending Test
  • Compression Test
  • Impact Test
  • Collapse Test
  • Resistance to heat
  • Resistance to burning
  • Electrical characteristics
  • Checking Dimensions
  • Bending Test ( at room temperature only)
  • Compression Test
  • Collapse Test
  • Resistance to burning
  • Electrical Characteristics
 
Dimensions as per IS: 9537 (Part3) - 1983

Nominal Size Outside Diameter Tolerance on Outside Diameter Minimum inside Diameter
Light Medium Heavy

16

20

25

32

40

50

63

16

20

25

32

40

50

63

+0.3

+0.3

+0.4

+0.4

+0.4

+0.5

+0.6

13.7

17.4

22.1

28.6

35.8

45.8

57.0

13.0

16.9

21.4

27.8

35.4

44.3

-

12.2

15.8

20.6

26.6

34.4

43.2

-

The company also manufactures the following conduits to suit the customer's choice, Customer's satisfaction being is the primary concern of uPVC

Nominal Outside Diameter Wall Thickness
uPVC Screen Premium Screen Deluxe Screen Gold Screen Platinum Screen Diamond Screen
Black Yellow Blue Green Orange Red

19 mm

25mm

0.08

0.08

1.00

1.00

1.20

1.20

1.50

1.50

1.80

1.80

2.00

2.00

 

Mode of Packing

uPVC Electrical Conduits are supplied in Polythene bags.

Size No. of Conduits (each 3 meters)
19 mm 100 Nos
25 mm 50 Nos
Plumping Pipes ASTM, Pipes

Sujala pipes private ltd., Nandyal, is the leading manufacturers of uPVC pipes under the brand names of uPVC & uPVC Gold as per ISI specifications. These are used for various applications like domestic water supply, industrial and commercial building and plumbing water conections. These pipes are made in size ranging from ½ inch to 6 inch with schedules of 40 & 80 as per with Astm D 1785 in Blue & white colour. ASTM pipes are available in 3 & 6 mtr lengths. To identify ASTM pipes company has been using different colours of lines on pipe as follow:

Pipe Colour Line Colour Schedule Indicates

Blue

Blue

White

White

White

Yellow

Blue

Green

40

80

40

80

BTP

ASTM

BTP

ASTM

ASTM Pipes are produced strictly as per ASTM D 1785 and they offer the following advantage over conventional pipes like cement and cast iron pipes.

Features and Advantages
  • ASTM pipes are lighter in weight & easy for installation
  • Non-corrosive, Non-toxic & chemical resistant in nature
  • Uniform pipe dimensions & threading with smooth inner diameter
  • ASTM pipe diameters are equivalent to GI pipes & fitting
  • Better resistance of water hammer & Surge pressure
  • ASTM pipes are of good strength and better quality ensuring durability

These pipes are priced at affordable rates.

Plumbing Pipes

The company also manufactures Grey colour plumbing pipes as per ISI standards IS: 4985 - 2000

Salient Features
  • Manufactured as per 4985-2000
  • Safe for drinking water supply system
  • Light in weight, easy to handle and install
  • Rust and leak proof and have high resistance to heat, fire etc.
  • Economical - compared to GI pipes of other companies
Featured
  • The pipe diameters are equivalent to GI pipes & fittings
  • Better resistance of water hammer and surge pressure.
  • Simple and facilities quick and firm jointing
  • Non-conductive, Non-corrosive, Non-toxic and economical resistant
  • Maintenance free and ensure high flow rate.
  • Also usable in Offices, Hotels, Complexes and Building for water connection, distribution and sanitary purposes.
  Dimensions of ASTM Pipes (As per ASTM D 1785)

Nominal pipe size in Inch Outside diameter in mm Wall Thickness in mm
Schedule 40 Schedule 80
Min Max Min Max Min Max
1/2 " 21.24 21.44 2.77 3.28 3.78 4.24
3/4 " 26.57 26.77 2.87 3.38 3.91 4.42
1 " 33.27 33.53 3.38 3.89 4.55 5.08
1 ¼" 42.03 42.29 3.56 4.07 4.85 5.43
1 ½ " 48.11 48.41 3.68 4.19 5.08 5.69
2 " 60.17 60.47 3.91 4.42 5.54 6.20
2 ½ " 72.84 73.20 5.16 5.77 7.01 7.85
3 " 88.70 89.10 5.16 5.77 7.01 7.85
4" 114.07 114.53 5.74 6.42 8.56 9.58
5" 141.05 141.55 6.02 6.73 9.52 10.66
6" 168.00 168.56 6.55 7.34 10.97 12.29

Dimensions of Plumbing Pipes (As per IS: 4985 - 2000)

Nominal Outside Diameter Tolerance on Outside Diameter Class1 2.5 kgf/ Cm2 Class2 4kgf/ Cm2 Class3 6kgf/ Cm2 Class4 8kgf/ Cm2 Class5 10kgf/ Cm2 Class6 12.5kgf/ Cm2 Plumbing Pipes Min
Min - Max Min - Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
20 +0.3 - - - - - - - - 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.8 2.8 3.3
25 +0.3 - - - - - - 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.7 2.1 2.9 3.4
32 +0.3 - - - - - - 1.5 1.9 1.8 2.2 2.2 2.7 3.4 3.9
40 +0.3 - - - - 1.4 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.8 3.3 3.6 4.2
50 +0.3 - - - - 1.7 2.1 2.3 2.8 2.8 3.3 3.4 4.0 4.7 4.3

uPVC SWR Pipes

Sujala Pipes Pvt Ltd., Nandyala, a unit of Nandi Group of companies, has been manufacturing 'uPVC' brand Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (u PVC) plain and Socket end pipes with nominal outside diameter from 75, 90, 110 & 160 mm. These pipes are used in soil and waste discharge system inside the buildings including ventilating and rain water applications. The pipe's surface colour is dark shade of gray. Pipes are made and supplied in nomial lengths of 4, 6, 8 and 10 feet either plain or with solvent typed socket / '0' ring typed grooved socket. The company's uPVC gold brand SWR pipe enjoys ISI recognition. (IS: 13592 - 1992). The Company also manufacturers SWR pipes under the brand names of uPVC premium and uPVC Deluxe as per customer's choice and requirements. These pipes are manufactured with virgin material only.

Type - A

Nominal Out side Diameter Mean Out side Diameter Wall Thickness Type - A
In mm Min Max Min Max

75

90

110

160

75.00

90.00

110.00

160.00

75.30

90.30

110.40

160.50

1.80

1.90

2.20

3.20

2.20

2.30

2.70

3.80

 

Type A: For use in ventilation pipe work and rain water applications.

Type - B

Nominal Out side Diameter Mean Out side Diameter Wall Thickness Type - B
In mm Min Max Min Max

75

90

110

160

75.00

90.00

110.00

160.00

75.30

90.30

110.40

160.50

3.20

3.20

3.20

4.00

3.80

3.80

3.80

4.60

Type B: For use in soil and waster discharge systems.

Salient Features
  • High flow rate & Non - Conductive - uPVC pipes have smooth inner surface. uPVC SWR Pipes & fitting are non-conductive and galvanic or electrolytic action does not affect its working. Thus flow rate will be more.
  • Low Priced - Due to light weight and simple jointing techniques, saving can be effected in the cost of material, transportation and installation. Cost of uPVC SWR Pipes & fittings are therefore more cost effective than conventional drainage pipes
  • Resilient and resistant to most of the chemicals - uPVC SWR pipes & fittings are resistant to alcohol, fats, oil, aromatic & chlorinated hydrocarbons. Also they are more reliable and do not support any fungal growth.
  • Uv Stabilized - uPVC SWR pipes & fittings usable for drainage system is UV Stabilized which eliminates the adverse effect of sunlight and weather. Therefore the system can be used for out door applications.
  • Non- Corrosive - Pipes do not support any for formation of rust on pipes.
  • Durable and long lasting - It has very good tensile and impact strength, hence, site breaking is totally eliminated.
  • Fast and convenient installation - As the uPVC SWR Pipes & fitting are extremely light in weight and provided with special rubber jointing technique, installation will be easier. Jointing can be done within seconds with special rubber rings which eliminate leakages. Cleaning is also very easy
Properties

Specific Gravity 1.14 -1.46 g / cm3
Coefficient of Liner Expansion 5-6 x 10-5 mm / m3C
Compressive strength 600 - 650 kg / cm2
Impact Strength Complies with IS: 13592 / 1992
Modulus of Elasticity 3 - 3.8 x 104 kg / cm2
Vicat Softening Point 800 C
Electrical Resistance 1014 Ohm.cm
Tensile Strength 500 - 550 kg / cm2